Learning English Vocabulary in the Chinese Context
Jun Lin, Aiguo Wang and Weiwei Du
Vocabulary acquisition is of great importance in learning a foreign language. Since vocabulary knowledge reflects one’s language capability to a great extent, it has long been felt to be a crucial factor in language learning. However, vocabulary learning is also a major difficulty which impedes learners’ progress in language learning. This paper analyzes the impact of several factors on vocabulary learning efficiency, such as mother tongue context, and makes suggestions on vocabulary learning strategies to EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners with regard to breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge.
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Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used by Poor Iranian High School Students
Touran Ahour and Parisa Salamzadeh
Words are the basic building blocks of a language, the units of meaning from which larger structures such as sentences, paragraphs and the whole texts are formed. Vocabulary is central to language and language learning and vocabulary learning is vital to the language learners. One subcategory of language learning strategies is vocabulary learning strategies and defined as what the learners do to reach the meaning of new words, hold these words in long-term memory, recall them when comprehension is used and use them in producing language. The aim of this study was to find out to what extent poor Iranian high school students use metacognitive, cognitive, social, and affective vocabulary learning strategies and which vocabulary learning strategies has the highest and lowest use among the participants. To conduct the study, a total of 45 high school female students in a high-school in Tabriz, Iran, participated in this survey. A vocabulary learning strategy questionnaire was administrated to the participants. The results of the descriptive statistics revealed that among the four categories investigated, cognitive strategies were the most frequently used strategy, followed by social, affective and metacognitive, strategies, respectively. The implications and recommendations are also presented.
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Serum White Blood Cell Count (WBC) and Plasma C Reactive Protein (CRP) Values could be Markers for Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Hiromi Ugaki, Takashi Miyatake, Noboru Matsuzaki, Toshiro Hashimoto, Yutaka Ueda and Takayuki Enomoto
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is frequently caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Standard bacterial culture confirmation of these causative microorganisms is time-consuming. This study describes a rapid process for identifying these pathogenic microorganisms of acute severe PID. A total of 33 patients diagnosed with pelvic peritonitis (treated between April 2002 and December 2006) were retrospectively analyzed. At initial consultation laboratory tests of white blood cells (WBC) and plasma C-reactive protein were conducted. At the same time the patients were screened for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification analysis of DNA extracted from endocervical mucus swabs. There were significant clinical differences in the WBC count among the patients positive for Chlamydia trachomatis (low WBC) versus Neisseria gonorrhoeae (high) infections (p=0.0004), and for patients positive for Chlamydia trachomatis versus patients negative for both bacteria (p=0.0043), and for Neisseria gonorrhoeae positive patients versus patients negative for both bacteria (p=0.0047). Plasma CRP values were significantly lower in patients positive for Chlamydia trachomatis compared to patients positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (p=0.012). Our study provides evidence that WBC counts and plasma CRP values are useful PID screening markers to tentatively differentiate between Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
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A Survey on the Relationship between Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Reading Comprehension Performance
Author(s) Ebrahim Zangani, Javad Gholami, Abolfazl Ghoreishi and Mehdi Dadashi
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), as one of the most common psychiatric disorders, can influence the students’ performance in daily activities in general and in learning of various language skills and sub skills in particular. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between GAD and reading comprehension performance in English as a foreign language. 141 male and female high school students in Zanjan were selected as the participants of the study. GAD-7 self report scale and a reading comprehension test were administered. The results of the statistical analyses of data indicated that there is a significant negative relationship between GAD and reading comprehension performance. However, no relation or difference was found between GAD and gender. GAD in females correlated significantly and negatively and in males negatively but insignificantly with their performance in reading comprehension. The obtained results also revealed that GAD influences the students’ performance to some extent in reading comprehension. Moreover, four anxiety groups were compared in terms of their performance in reading comprehension and significant difference was observed among the means. Nonetheless, no groups were found to be statistically different from the rest. Accordingly, it was concluded that possible sources of anxiety should be identified and diminished and alternative remedies can be applied for students with GAD.
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