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International Trends in Immunity

ISSN 2326-3121 (Print)

ISSN 2326-313X (Online)

Website: http://www.researchpub.org/journal/iti/iti.html

Cover design kindly provided by Giulia Pandolfi

Volume 04, Number 02  (April 2016)
Parasitic Diseases’ Control: Beyond the Adaptive Immunity
Author(s) Eduardo Milton Ramos-Sanchez, Fernando Nogueira Souza and Hiro Goto

Global parasite burden may impact population, individual health and livestock production, with socioeconomic consequences. Preventive measures are the first approach for control but peculiarities of parasitic infections when involve sylvatic vectors or reservoirs for instance turn them close to impossible. In this context, an alternative is to induce protective responses in the target hosts. Parasites in general comparing with other microorganisms have long replicating time that apparently would facilitate the immune system to defeat them. However through millions of years these parasites have developed diverse strategies to evade and/or to modulate the host response for their survival. The difficult control of parasites derives in part from characteristics of their life cycle presenting different developmental phases, interactions with different vectors, intermediate and definitive hosts. Thus for effective parasite control, researches focusing different interactions that take place during life cycle are of paramount importance. The articles in this issue highlight some novel facets. Related to these aspects we add some reflections focusing the role of diverse hosts, of vectors and non-specific elements of host defense, many paving route to adaptive immune response, to open fronts that may be tackled aiming parasite control.

Cattle Specific Immune Mechanisms used against the Protozoan Theileria annulata
Author(s) Ferrolho J., Domingos A. and Campino L.

Theileria annulata, the causative agent of tropical theileriosis, is an intracellular protozoan parasite transmitted by ticks of the genus Hyalomma. This tick-borne disease (TBD) exerts a high impact on livestock production in many developing tropical and subtropical countries. With an intricate life cycle and wide distribution around the world, many advances were made to restrict the impact and to control this TBD through the use of acaricides, chemotherapy and attenuated vaccines. However, an overreliance on these chemicals has meant new approaches for developing more effective vaccines are needed. Decades of studies support the idea that the humoral immune response elicited against the sporozoite stage of the tick life cycle may protect the host from infection. Further protective responses provided by cytotoxic T-cells, macrophages, and Natural Killer cells have also been identified as critically important during T. annulata infection. Here our focus will be the bovine immune response upon T. annulata infection, particularly the differential humoral and cellular immune responses. Our aim is to highlight the importance of the mechanisms potentially involved in protective immunity as well as significant findings, which may be incorporated into novel strategies for tropical theileriosis control.

The Battle between Leishmania and the Host Immune System at a Glance
Author(s) Santos-Mateus D, Passero LFD, Rodrigues A, Valério-Bolas A, Silva-Pedrosa R, Pereira M, Laurenti MD and Santos-Gomes G

Leishmaniasis is a neglected parasitic disease whose diverse clinical manifestations are dependent on the interrelations between intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The infecting species of Leishmania, the parasite’s ability to evade mammal immune response and the host genetic background seems to pre-determine the degree of resistance and sensitivity to infection, regulating the disease outcome. The introduction of metacyclic promastigotes into the dermis of the mammal host by the sand fly originates an unspecific immune response that can difficult the parasite replication and dispersion or, by the contrary favor the selection of fit parasites, assuring the parasite survival and the disease onset. This review aims to provide a comprehensive outline of the immune response displayed against Leishmania parasites by the host and the strategies exhibited by the parasite to subvert the host immune mechanisms. Emphasis is given to the early contact of the parasite with the immune system of the host, as this is a crucial time-point for parasite control that might be explored for the development of new and more efficient control measures. The role of neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells when facing different species of Leishmania are examined as well as the link of immediate innate immune response with the late acquired immunity.

Anopheles gambiae and A. stephensi Immune Response during Plasmodium berghei Infection Uncovered by Sialotranscriptomic Analysis
Author(s) Couto J., Ferrolho J., de la Fuente J. and Domingos A.

Malaria is caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium that are transmitted through the bite of female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. Responsible for high mobility and mortality rates around the world, this protozoan disease is most common in the tropical and sub-tropical regions. Herein, using a pure transcriptomic data analysis approach on mosquito salivary glands we have identified, compiled and compared immune-related transcripts and their levels of expression in A. gambiae and A. stephensi after P. berghei infection. Focusing in immune mechanisms such as recognition of the parasite, signal modulation by serine protease cascades and effector mechanisms, several subclasses of proteins were investigated, including thioester-containing proteins, leucine-rich domain-containing proteins, C-type lectins, galactoside-binding lectins, clip-domain serine proteases, serine protease inhibitors, and antimicrobial peptides. The anti-vector vaccine potential of key-molecules that have exert an action in regulating parasite development have been considered thus, targeting highly conserved antigenic molecules can be effective to control arthropod-borne diseases, including malaria. This study constitutes the first comparative sialotranscriptomic analysis between these two mosquito vectors upon pathogen invasion, focusing solely specific subclasses of immune-related transcripts. Lastly, in order to search for new targets with potential to become pan-arthropod vaccines, we provide potential candidate genes with interest to be further investigated for malaria control.