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Journal of Applied and Industrial Sciences

ISSN 2328-4595 (Print)

ISSN 2328-4609 (Online)

Website: http://www.researchpub.org/journal/jais/jais.html

Volume 04, Number 01  (April 2016)
Drainage Basin Morphometric Analysis of Galagu Valley
Author(s)Ahmed Suleiman Mustafa, Ummhani Idris Ahmed and Nagi Obaid Naeem

In the present study, morphometric analysis of the Galagu valley basin was done to produce information on the morphometry of the Galagu valley basin and to assess its hydrological characteristics and flood potentials. Parameters worked out include variables related to: basin shape, relief basin and drainage network. The study depends on the analysis of data employed from Digital Elevation Models which is obtained from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission using spatial data obtained from Geographical Information Systems. The results show that Galagu valley occupies a large area with elongated shape. Meanwhile, the length, the width and the perimeter of the valley indicate high filtration, evaporation and transportation. The drainage network revealed that Galagu valley basin is of 5th order with a dendritic drainage pattern and coarse drainage texture. Values of bifurcation ratio, drainage density, circularity ratio, elongation ratio, stream frequency and drainage density indicate that the basin produces a flatter peak of direct runoff for a longer duration. A flood control structure could be constructed upstream of the valley tributary confluence point to raise the flow level and fill the meadow in this system. Investigation on groundwater availability to augment the surface flow is also needed.

Synoptic Conditions Responsible for Rainfall and Dry Situations above Khartoum Area-Sudan (1994-2003)
Author(s)Khadiga Y. Abdelmola

Synoptic conditions including rainfall and dryness over Khartoum have been investigated by using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Two-Step Cluster analysis methods. The synoptic observation data has been collected from the Khartoum station during the period 1994-2003. First, PCA has been used as a data reduction technique and six PC scores which described 72.03% of the total variance were retained by using eigenvalues greater than one. The PC1 was strongly positively correlated with relative humidity (and the related dew point temperature) and cloud cover, while the other PCs have a weak correlation with all variables. Second, these modes are treated as a new file for Classification Analysis technique. Finally, nine synoptic types were determined in this area.
These types are showing reasonable results and reflecting the synoptic features which, oscillate over this area e.g. unstable southwesterly monsoon wind dominates over the areas south of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) position inducing thunderstorm rainfall during the rainy season.

Risk Factors Associated with Prevalence of Bovine Hydatidosis in Cattle Slaughtered at Khartoum State
Author(s)A. Elsair, A.I Abdelrahim and Adil M. A. Salman

Across-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and risk factors associated with hydatidosis in cattle slaughtered at Khartoum state. Out of 210 cattle examined pathologically for the presence of Hydatid cyst , 12 animals were found to be positive for hydatidosis with 5.7% prevalence rate. Univariate analysis showed statistical significant association between age, sex, source and body condition of the animals and hydatidosis with variable degrees. Exceptionally, the study revealed highly significant association between prevalence of Echinococcosis and presence of dogs. In conclusion, it was found that presence of dogs roaming within and around the slaughterhouses is a real threatening to the public health and that is by consuming the infected offal. Therefore, reduction or eradication of this stray dogs population is a necessity for controlling the hydatid disease in the Sudan.

Effect of Freeze Storage on some Physical and Chemical Properties of Turkey (Meleagrisgallopavo) Breast Meat
Author(s)Salim Gibril, Ahmed Mukhtar E Eltrifi, Al Hafiz Abdelrahman Hassan and Muzzamil Atta

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of freeze storage on physical properties and chemical composition of turkey meat. Seven breast meat samples of turkey were randomly selected out of 15 breast meat samples obtained from turkeys kept under semi intensive system of management and slaughtered at the age of 28 weeks at the University of Bahri farm, Khartoum North. Samples were examined for their physical properties and chemical composition immediately after slaughter and then after seven months of storage in a deep freezer at -18oc.A significant (p<0.01) decrease in the values of water holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss, chemical composition and color intensity (lightness, redness and yellowness values)due to storage. On the other hand, a significant (p<0.01) increase in the values of pH at seven month of storage was observed.
It is concluded that freeze storage of turkey breast meat improves some physical properties which are useful for further processing.

Efficacy of Pyrethroid Impregnated Bed-nets on Malaria Transmission in Eastern Sudan
Author(s)Abdelrafie M. Makhawi, Marium A. Aboud, Omran F. Osman and Dia-Edin A. Elnaiem

The effects of impregnated bednets in the mosquitos’ density and malaria morbidity has been evaluated in area with heterogeneity of malaria vectors and parasites in Tabaldia and Batta villages Eastern Sudan; The density of An. arabiensis, An. funestus and An. rufipes species collected from study area showed significant variation in their numbers (χ2 (P) = 150.98 (<0.001) for Tabaldia; 164.627 (<0.001) for Batta and 310.471 (<0.001) for the total of different Anopheles mosquitoes collected from both study villages. The impact of the impregnated bednets in the density of the two malaria vectors An. arabiensis and An. funestus and their sporozoite infection rates also highly significant different (P< 0.001) between intervention(Tabaldia) and non-intervention (Batta) villages.
The prevalence of malaria in the area was estimated as (8.7%, 7.6%) for Tabaldia and (14.7%, 12.6%) for Batta village at the first and second phases of the study respectively. The main predominate malaria parasite in the area was P. falciparum (98.7%), where P. vivax and P. malariae were detected with an equal rates (0.65%). Also the efficacy of impregnated bednets in the age groups within and between two villages showed significant difference mainly in the ages ranged in 6-15 years old and clear reduction observed in age 16-30 years.

Milk Yield and Milk Composition of Nilotic Cattle Breed Supplemented with Different Levels of Concentration
Author(s)Mohammed R.M, Fager I.M, Abu Neikhaila A.M, Abdelwahid H.H and Abu shulukh E.S

An experiment was carried out at the farm of the Upper Nile University in Malakal city, South of Sudan, to evaluate the effect of concentration supplements on milk yield and milk composition of Nilotic cows. Twenty-seven Nilotic cows with similar stage of pregnancy (cows were first parity) were used. The experiment had three treatments with nine replications each using a complete randomized design. The treatments were; Treated group No one animals fed hay plus 4 kg commercial concentrate mix (Kenana Natural animal feed), Treated group No two animals fed hay plus 5 kg commercial concentrate mix (Kenana Natural animal feed; Treated group No three animals fed on only hay harvested from natural pasture (Control). The daily milk yield was 1.5, 1.6 and 1.2 for treatment one, two and three respectively. The overall mean of total solid, protein, fat and lactose composition of milk (%) were 10.91, 3.53, 3.89 and 4.11 respectively. Milk yield was significantly different (P<0.05) between treatment groups. Regarding the milk compositions, there were no significant difference (P<0.05) among treatment groups. Supplementation of Nilotic cows maintained on natural grass pasture with concentrations has an effect only on milk yield.