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Journal of Medical Science

ISSN 2327-0276 (Print)

ISSN 2327-0284 (Online)

Website: http://www.researchpub.org/journal/jms/jms.html

Volume 01, Number 01  (2013)
Effects of Detraining on Physical Fitness and Cardiovascular Variables in Non-institutionalized Elders
Author(s) Lobo, A

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 2-month detraining on physical fitness and cardiovascular health variables.
37 non-institutionalized elders, which completed 1-year of a multicomponental physical activity program, were reevaluated after a 2-month post-intervention for the detraining period. Habitual physical activity (Baecke questionnaire), physical fitness (Functional Fitness Test), body composition (BMI and waist measure), blood pressure, plasma lipid and glucose concentrations were assessed.
Data demonstrated that detraining significantly affected lower body components and the agility/dynamic balance, while there were significant changes in the cardiovascular variables. Our results indicate that favorable physical activity adaptations were lost within 2-months of detraining. Therefore, elders should follow a long-term and systematic exercise routine throughout life, in order to improve and maintain their physical functions and to ameliorate their cardiovascular condition.

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Hyperlipidemia Aggravates Renal Disease in Bacteremic Male Albino Rats
Author(s) Manar E Selim, Olfat M Yousef, Sherifa H Hamid and Nadia A Aleisa

Electron microscopic study is very essential in assessing the nature and state of the tissues. It is used widely to examine the visceral organs in various diseases, infections and disorders. It provides the required insight and details about the possible malfunctioning of the disease or infection. Male adult albino rats with hyperlipidaemia were taken and test group was infected with Escherichia coli.
Abnormalities in lipid metabolism appear to play a pathogenic role in progressive renal disease. The control group was not infected with any clinical pathogen. The electron microscopic examination was carried out to determine the effect of infection in the experimental groups. kidney was the visceral organ which was used for the study. Difference in case of infected male rats when compared with control group rats on the level of electron microscope can be further extended in the case of other clinical pathogenic infections which could lead to interesting results. Hyperlipidemic- bacteremic group showed increased chronic damage in renal tissue. The deleterious effects of hyperlipidemia with its pathogenetic mechanisms, however, leading to an increase in inflammatory mediators in lipid-induced tubulointerstitial degeneration and the relationship between glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage in this case have not been examined before by the electron microscope. The present study was conducted to find out the role of hyperlipidemia and inflammation caused by E coli in the alteration of kidney tissue by the electron microscope in male albino rats.

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Improving Interdisciplinary Collaboration Regarding End-of-Life Decisions: a Pilot Study
Author(s) Hanne I. Jensen, Jette Ammentorp and Helle Ording

The aim was to examine healthcare professionals’ evaluation of interdisciplinary audits as a method to improve interdisciplinary collaboration regarding end-of-life decision-making. Three interdisciplinary audits were conducted with participation of 8 primary physicians, 9 intensivists and 12 nurses. The participants were first asked to assess real-life cases, and subsequently, based on the cases, to discuss current practice of end-of-life decision-making. Form and profit of the audits were evaluated by a short questionnaire at the end of the sessions and three months later. Evaluated immediately after and three months after audit most participants (97% and 89%, respectively) found that this type of audit to great or some extent was usable to improve interdisciplinary collaboration regarding end-of-life decision-making. All emphasised the interdisciplinarity as one of the benefits of the discussions. After three months 35% - 45% found that collaboration and own practice to some or less extent had changed after the audit. The study suggests that healthcare professionals experience audit as a usable method to improve interdisciplinary collaboration regarding end-of-life decision-making in the ICU.

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Neridronic Acid Effects on Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: Treat and Adhere Anyways
Author(s) A.Lurati, D.Bompane, K.Re, MG Marrazza and M Scarpellini

Osteoporosis is a major health concern that is associated with an increased risk of first and subsequent bone fractures. Untreated osteoporosis results in considerable morbidity. Currently, bisphosphonates are the mainstay of treatment for osteoporosis and the aim of this study was to assess the effects of intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) neridronate (NE) on femoral/lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) and to fracture the risk in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Data were collected on age, weight, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, height loss, history of falls, total hip and lumbar BMD, and creatinine clearance. Inclusion criteria were a lumbar or femoral BMD T score < 2.5; Exclusion criteria were secondary osteoporosis, previous osteoporotic fracture, prior bisphosphonates or osteoporosis medications other than calcium or colecalciferol, presence of any concomitant skeletal metabolic disease.

METHODS: 164 patients (mean age 64±2.7 years) with postmenopausal osteoporosis confirmed with a lumbar and femoral DEXA BMD scan received NE IV 100mg every 8 weeks for 18 months and subsequently IM NE 25 mg every 4 weeks for 18 months. All patients had gastric or esophageal conditions that contraindicated treatment with oral bisphosphonates (BPs). All subjects received daily calcium 1 g and vitamin D 800 UI. Lumbar and femoral DEXA BMD scans were performed at baseline, 18 months and 36 months.

RESULTS: After 18 months of IV therapy mean ±SD lumbar BMD was significantly increased (baseline -2.8±1.2 vs 18 months -2.6±1.4; p<0.01). Mean ±SD femoral neck BMD was also improved (baseline -2.15±1.1 vs 18 months -2.01±0.5; p<0.05). After an additional 18 months of IM NE the mean ±SD BMD values were lumbar -1.89±0.8 and femur -1.49±1.48; p< 0.01 vs. baseline.

CONCLUSION: The results of this study confirm the role of NE in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis and indicate the potential usefulness of intramuscular administration in the treatment of these patients.

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The Anti-oxidant Activities and the Best Therapeutic Time Window and Dose of Picroside II in Cerebral Ischemic Injury in Rats
Author(s) Ji Xiao-jun, Chang Cui-cui, Lin Rong-hai, Zhang Rui and Zhao Li

The aim is to optimize the anti-oxidant effect and the therapeutic dose and time window of picroside II by orthogonal test in cerebral ischemic injury in rats. The forebrain ischemia models were established by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) methods. The successful models were randomly grouped according to orthogonal experimental design and treated by injecting picroside II intraperitoneally at different ischemic time with different dose. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and catalase (CAT) in serum and brain tissue were respectively determined by xanthinoxidase method, chemical colorimetry and chemiluminescence immunoassay. The optimized composition of the therapeutic dose and time window of picroside II in cerebral ischemic injury were (1) ischemia 1.5h with 20mg/kg, 1.5h with 10mg/kg and 1.5h with 20mg/kg body weight according to the activities of SOD, GSHPx and CAT in serum, (2) ischemia 1.5h with 20mg/kg, 2.0h with 20mg/kg and 1.5h with 10mg/kg body weight according to the activities of SOD, GSHPx and CAT in brain tissue. Combined evaluation from the principle of lowest therapeutic dose with longest time window, the optimized composition of the therapeutic dose and time window of picroside II in cerebral ischemic injury is 10-20mg/kg body weight at ischemia 1.5-2.0h.

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